Chroma Technology Corp, Rockingham, VT

Chroma Technology Corp. is an employee-owned company. We believe that the benefits of employee-ownership are many, and include the direct relationship between increased production levels, strong employee-owner commitment, and financial rewards. We are members of the Vermont Employee Ownership Center.

Chroma Technology Corp. is a manufacturer of interference filters for the ultra-violet, visible, and near-infrared portions of the spectrum, including bandpass, multiple bandpasses, and long and short pass filters, as well as beamsplitters, dichroic mirrors, and laser rejection filters. We specialize in precision spectral control, including extra high signal-to-noise ratio filters and those with rapid cut-on and cut-off profiles. The manufacturing process involves precisely depositing, in a vacuum, extremely thin layers of two or more materials on a glass or similarly transparent substrate. Chroma was organized by several talented individuals who wanted to create a working environment entirely different from the typical corporate structure. structure.

chroma technologies

Founded in Brattleboro, Vermont, in May 1991, Chroma quickly established itself as a leader in filter designs. From its inception, Chroma has worked closely with the community of molecular and cell biologists worldwide to develop the best possible solutions to applications requiring fluorescence filters. As an employee-owned company, it has grown from seven employees with sales of $314,200 in its first year of business, to 54 employees with sales of $12,000,000 in its 10th year of business.

Currently, microscope filter sales represent 66% of total revenues. Chroma is a principal supplier to three of the four major microscope manufacturers and a secondary supplier of the fourth. The remaining 34% of Chroma’s business comes from manufacturers in bioscience instrumentation, bio-medical instrumentation, pharmaceutical research, astronomy, and laser-based instrumentation. Chroma’s filters are distributed worldwide with 34% of its business from international sales.

chroma technologies

For more information about employee-owned business check out the Vermont Employee Ownership Center.

Being their own bosses

Saturday, January 17, 2009Whereas some companies grapple with the idea of employee ownership — of employees buying into the company’s philosophy, of workers investing their efforts in the company’s success — one Vermont business operates under a different system.

At Chroma Technology Corporation in Rockingham, employee ownership means just that. The employees — all 88 of them — own the company.

The firm, which makes filters and lenses, primarily for microscopes, set up shop in 1991 with six employees, its co-founders, including chief executive Paul Millman.

Millman had previously worked for a company that made similar products.

“I wondered why I was doing a great deal of the work that was making a great deal of money for my employers but was not benefiting from that,” Millman said. “I thought that if people were going to work and make the profits, they should benefit from it. There’s always the downside, that you would suffer from it. We haven’t suffered from it yet.”

Instead, Chroma has grown, from six employees to 17, then to 23 and 30 and so on, all co-owners, all with stock in the company, and all with equal shares in the profits.

But with “employees” and “owners” being interchangeable terms, Chroma occasionally operates under a not-so-delicate dance — between workers who might want to make a certain decision, and their fellow employees on the board of directors, who might disagree.

“As much as I would like to sometimes, you can’t just say, ‘Do it because I said so,’ ” Millman said. “You sort of have to justify to people why you think this is a better way to do things. That’s not to say that every decision is open for a negative vote. Sometimes you say, ‘Guys, you just gotta do it because we think it’s in the best interest of the company.’ ”

While it can sometimes be painful to share responsibility for the company, Millman said he thinks it is the best way for business.

“I don’t think that one person can run a company,” Millman said. “We hear stories about great business geniuses: Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, any number of people who are credited with creating a company. I’ve never met one person who knew enough in a company about all aspects of the company to run it on his or her own.

“I certainly don’t,” he said. “I know a fair amount about how to sell stuff. I know nothing about how to make stuff, how to do finance, keep the books. I know precious little about the human resources laws and obligations and procedures. So while I think I’m pretty good at what I do know, I’m very good at what I don’t know. That is, I know that other people have to do it.”

In the beginning, that meant, say, that one co-founder would be in charge of finance while another made decisions about insurance and health care. But as the company grew, the form of governance changed, as did the pay structure.

Chroma once had a town-meeting style of decision-making, though some choices were made outside of meetings, Millman said.

“We graduated from the town meeting to a number of experiments in representative government, but they didn’t work,” Millman said. Instead, Chroma now has a steering committee that organizes and oversees production.

“That’s not to say I haven’t gotten into conflict with them. I have,” he said. “I come from anti-authoritarianism. I’ve been forced to embrace some concept of authority, which is contrary to my sense of what things ought to be like but is not contrary to my experience. This is actually necessary.”

With the steering committee, supervisors or shop foremen are not needed, Millman said.

“Our approach is: You know what we need to do; make sure it happens, and don’t depend on me to figure out how to do that,” he said. “But if it’s not happening, you can be assured someone is going to say It’s not happening. Let’s make it happen.’ ”

Initially, all employees, no matter what they did, earned the same amount: $30,000, which was both the minimum and maximum yearly salary, though Millman said some people took lower salaries to help the company.

As the company’s profits grew, so, too, did the pay, Millman said. A person in his or her first year would earn $35,000, while a fifth-year employee would pull in $52,500. Those numbers later changed in an effort to keep long-term employees, with the first-year employee earning $37,500 and a 10th-year worker pulling in $75,000.

New recruits would soon be allowed to come in at a higher pay-step.

That worked really wonderfully for a long time until we realized that our top salary was insufficient to attract people to what the world calls ‘skill’ positions,” he said. “They were salespeople, applications scientists, et cetera.”

“Now, workers are broken into a four-tiered salary system, with the bottom tier ranging from $37,500 to $72,500 a year and the top-tier coming in between $60,000 and $97,500,” Millman said.

Though the pay is now different, everyone still gets a say, Millman said.

“There are regular meetings in each department,” Millman said. “They meet with the steering committee, they meet on their own, to make decisions about how to do their work. The company meets at least once a month to talk about where we’re going, what the trends are. Those meetings tend to run three hours.

“That’s a fair amount of time during the week,” he said. “We expect that people are going to participate in making decisions that make them work better. if it takes several hours away from the workweek to make them more productive in the future, it’s worth that.”

Forms of employee-ownership arrangements are worth it to fewer than 40 companies in Vermont, ranging from smaller worker cooperatives to large businesses, according to Ursula Jones, spokeswoman for the Burlington-based Vermont Employee Ownership Center.

“Oftentimes, what happens is the founder or owner of the company is thinking about retiring, and that’s often what will trigger this kind of transaction,” Jones said. “They decide they don’t want to sell to an outsider, and they want to keep the company in the community in which it’s founded.

“Sometimes it’s a way of acknowledging the work of their long-term employees and giving back to them, and also a way of preserving their legacy,” she said. “They may not want to see their company chopped up, sold off or closed down.”

Seventeen years after helping found Chroma, Millman is still with the company. Seventeen years into the experiment, he is still preaching the benefits of employee ownership.

“I’m always intrigued by the business gurus who say, ‘What you want is for employees to act as the owners,’ ” Millman said. “I say I want my employees to act because they’re the owners.”

You can reach David Greisman at 352-1234, extension 1439, or

Chroma Technologies

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